We had joy, we had fun, we had RES701 in A215

RES 701- 2016

A journey with 24 passengers.

12 weeks training for taking decisions with minimizing the emotions.

I learned a lot during the time period 11AM-2PM on Wednesdays including, how to read academic papers, how to get an idea of the credibility of a document and ethical guidelines of a research.

Even though I value the logical thinking, when it comes to decision making my emotions pops up hiding my brain. Anyway now I see the improvement of my thoughts my thoughts comparing the first day of the RES 701.

Through RES 701 Clare taught us not only to improve researching skills but also establish the logical thinking within ourselves to solve day to day problems logically. Thanks a lot Clare.

All good things must come to an end. Even though the assignment one of RES701 ends on 10th of June, I would like to thank all of my class mates and other friends for reading my blog posts and encouraging me and would like to request all the colleagues in the class RES 701 – 2016 to share the thoughts and continue the journey started on 2nd of March 2016.

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The area of IT that interests me.(iii)

The knowledge and steps related to Natural Language Processing (NLP)

The knowledge

The understanding a natural language is much more complicated than just arranging the words into parts of speech and searching for their definitions. Therefore, it is important to identify the types of knowledges related to NLU.

  • Phonetic and phonological knowledge: How words are associated with sounds.
  • Morphological knowledge: How words are built from more basic morphemes. (Morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language. That means, it is the smallest meaningful unit of a language.)
  • Syntactic knowledge: How sequences of words form sentences. Knowledge of the rules of grammar.
  • Semantic knowledge: How words have “meaning”, how words have reference and associated concepts
  • Pragmatic knowledge: How sentences are used in different situations and how use affects the interpretation of the sentence,” this involves the intentions and context of the conversation.
  • Discourse knowledge: How preceding sentences determine the meaning of a sentence, such as in the case of the referent of a pronoun.
  • World knowledge: The general knowledge, that means, other users beliefs and aims in a conversation.

The steps

  • Lexical Analysis: It comprises identifying and analyzing the structure of words. Lexicon of a language means the collection of words and phrases in a language. Lexical analysis is separating the whole text into paragraphs, sentences, and words.
  • Syntactic Analysis: It involves study of words in the sentence for grammar and arranging words in a manner that shows the relationship among the words.
  • Semantic Analysis: It represents the exact meaning or the dictionary meaning from the text. The text is checked for meaningfulness. It is done by mapping syntactic structures and objects in the task domain.
  • Discourse Integration: The meaning of any sentence depends on the meaning of the sentence just before it. In addition, it also brings about the meaning of nearly succeeding sentence.
  • Pragmatic Analysis: What was said is re-interpreted on what it actually meant. It involves deriving those aspects of language which require real world knowledge.

 

References:

 

The area of IT that interests me.(ii)

What is NLP (Natural Language Processing)?

NLP is the AI (Artificial Language) way of interactions between human and computer. The field of NLP involves teaching computers to understand the way humans learn and use language. Speech and written text are the two type of communicating methods of NLP system. A program’s own understanding called “machine learning”, is the most successful method in NLP systems, while most of the previous tasks done by the direct hand coding of large sets of rules.

Advantages of machine-learning algorithms over hand-produced rules

  • Machine-learning algorithms can be constructed more accurate simply by supplying larger input data.
  • The most common cases can be easily handled by the machine-learning algorithms rather than hand-produced rules.
  • Statistical inference algorithms can be used with the machine-learning algorithms.

NLU and NLG

The NLP system consists of two categories, understanding (interpretation) and generation.

Natural Language Generation: Generating meaningful sentences and phrases

Natural Language Understanding: Converting inputs into useful representations

References:

The area of IT that interests me.

I have an interest in the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in software engineering, especially in mobile app development.

Mobile app development is a steadily growing area in the field of software engineering while AI involves mathematical logic and reasoning, that is why I like the role of AI in mobile app development.

With the mobile app development, AI came in to the palms of our hands. For an example with the developments of NLU (Natural Language Understanding) technology, we can open a bank account, make a reservation, order fast food, inquire about timetables, and more in our words.

Even though most of the mobile apps are developed for mobile security, fitness assistance, hiring cabs and online shopping, the mobile apps industry has trends on technologies like cloud computing and big data.

It’s no longer about everything putting on apps of our mobile devices.

 

Answers – Academic Paper

(a). Did the abstract tell you the three things I said it should? If not, what did it tell you?

  1. what the research/paper/article topic is

The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) techniques for controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs).

  1. What the authors/researchers did and

List the AI directions, suitable for AI control system development.

  1. What they discovered/or created/or concluded.

Developments of control systems of UAVs and mobile objects based on AI.

(b). What seems to be the research question(s) they were trying to answer?

Possible ways of AI control systems development.

(c). What method(s) did they use to answer the question(s)

Autonomous AI control system for UAVs

(d). How credible do you think the paper is?

The article has higher credibility since the content of the article logically well organized, the ISSN number, the publisher and the details of the author available on the article including the list of references.

(e). Did you agree, or not, with what they wrote in their conclusion? Why?

I agree with their conclusion. The statements in conclusion are well matched with the content of the article.

(f). Briefly describe two things that you learnt from the paper.

The basic functions of an UAV and features of a AI control system.

(f). In no more than 250 of your own words (i.e. a paraphrase), describe what the paper is about – you could start with “This paper describes……….”

The aim of the paper is to find out possible ways to use AI control systems in UAV and other mobile devices.

The relative higher rate of accidents in UAVs compared to manned air crafts implies the inaccuracy of remote controls, and emphasizes the necessity of autonomous AI control system.

According to the author AI control system for UAVs should be developed by specialists on control and application of UAVs after mastering AI methods rather than AI specialists with master knowledge of UAVs control methods.

Further author has listed the following key areas to be considered when developing the AI control system,

  1. Minimize the damage to UAV
  2. Minimize the use of resources such as fuel and time
  3. Minimize the possibility of disturbance of finishing the mission in success
  4. Take all possible measures to hide the information
  5. The improvement of adjustments according to the situation and environment

The constraint reasoning, scheduling, planning and control methods for physical dynamic systems in real time will be developed to enhance the accuracy of the UAV control. In addition to that the AI system can examine the situation and take the decision faster than the human being, therefore AI system is well ahead of human being.

Upper level, Middle level, Lower level and lowermost level are identified as the methods of implementing the AI control system.

Two Academic Articles

ARTICLE 1

 

  • Title and author(s) 

Application of Artificial Intelligence methods in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

Vladimir Grishin

Space Research Institute (IKI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences

117997, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str, Moscow, Russia 

 

  • APA reference 

Grishin, Vladimir. “APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE METHODS IN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE CONTROL.” Journal of Information, Intelligence and Knowledge 3.4 (2011): 297.

 

  • The way I found the article and what keywords I used

 From http://search.proquest.com/

Key words: Artificial Intelligence

 

  • What kind of article it is, (journal paper, conference paper, master’s thesis ….)

 Journal paper

 

  • All the reasons that you think it is an academic article 

It is copyrighted by Nova Science Publishers, and the author is from Space Research Institute (IKI) of the Russian Academy of Sciences 117997, 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str, Moscow, Russia

 

  • How well it fits the ‘structure of an academic article’ that I described in my previous post 

It mentioned the author and his details, publisher and included the references.

 

  • How many references it has

 56

 

  • How many citations it has (if you can find out)

 4

 

  • URL

 http://search.proquest.com/docview/1730029398/abstract/E5201CABB0F04E43PQ/7?accountid=40261

 

  • Whether I am interested in properly reading the article or not (and give some reasons!)

I am interested in reading because it describes the implementation of Artificial intelligence in the control systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

 

ARTICLE 2

  • Title and author(s)

 Integrating RFID, web-based technology, and arti_cial intelligence in engineering management

Ko, C. H.

Department of Civil Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan.

Tel.: +886 8 7703202; Fax: +886 8 7740122

E-mail address: fpecount@yahoo.com.tw

 

  • APA reference

 Ko, C. H. “Integrating RFID, web-based technology, and artificial intelligence in engineering management.” Scientia Iranica. Transaction A, Civil Engineering 22.2 (2015): 299.

 

  • How I found the article and what keywords I used

 From http://search.proquest.com/

 Key words: Artificial Intelligence

 

  • What kind of article it is, (journal paper, conference paper, master’s thesis ….)

 Journal paper

 

  • All the reasons that you think it is an academic article

 It is copyrighted by Sharif University of Technology Scientia Iranica Transactions A: Civil Engineering http://www.scientiairanica.com, and the author is from Department of Civil Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Road, Neipu, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan.

 

  • how well it fits the ‘structure of an academic article’ that I described in my previous post

 It mentioned the author and his details, publisher and included the references.

 

  • how many references it has

 57

 

  • how many citations it has (if you can find out)

 5

 

  • URL

 http://search.proquest.com/docview/1685874234/abstract/CC9166E93BD54E07PQ/1?accountid=40261

 

  • Whether I am interested in properly reading the article or not (and give some reasons!)

I am interested in reading because it refers to the application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Web based Technology and Artificial Intelligence.

 

Searching for credible evidence – Exercise

  1. Digital citizenship

 

  • Search terms: Digital Citizenship
  • Found it on: Google Scholar
  • Written by: Karen Mossberger, Caroline J. Tolbert, Ramona S. McNeal
  • Published on: 12/10/2007
  • Kind of publication: Book
  • It appears credible since it is a pdf file from Illinois.edu and cited by 588

 

  • URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oCkTmZ0bF5Q
  • Search terms: Digital Citizenship
  • Found it on: You tube
  • Made by: Cyber wise 1
  • Published on: June 26, 2011
  • Kind of publication: Presentation
  • There are 88,972 views with 93 likes and 28 dis likes, so it has average credibility.

 

  1. Database design

 

  • URL: http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/2107187X.pdf
  • Search terms: Database Design
  • Found it on: Google Scholar
  • Written by: C Batini,S Ceri, S Navathe
  • Published on: 1989
  • Kind of publication: Book
  • The credibility is high since it uploaded by educational institute and cited by 1576.

 

 

  1. Oculus rift
  • URL: http://oculusrift-blog.com/
  • Search terms: Oculus rift
  • Found it on: Google
  • Written by: No name
  • Published on: 2015
  • Kind of publication: blog
  • No name of a author and no exact date of publication, therefore it has a low credibility.

 

  • URL: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1408/1408.1173.pdf
  • Search terms: Oculus rift
  • Found it on: Google Scholar
  • Written by: Parth Rajesh Desai,Pooja Nikhil Desai, Komal Deepak Ajmera, Khushbu Mehta
  • Published on: 6 Aug 2014
  • Kind of publication: paper publication
  • It is in Cornell University library therefore it has high credibility, though it cited by only 8.

 

  • URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZC2VIE0hkko
  • Search terms: Oculus rift
  • Found it on: You tube
  • Presented by: Jeremy Williams, Norman Chan
  • Published on: Apr 1, 2016
  • Kind of publication: Video clip
  • There are 173,102 views with 2,530 likes and 174 dis likes, so it has average credibility.

 

Prisoners

According to the most writers the “Modernism” is identified as series of cultural movements took place in late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries.

Did the “Modernism” arise as a result of “Renaissance” took place in 14th to 17th centuries? Or did “Modernism” have a relationship with “Renaissance” or not?

David_von_Michelangelo

The concept of “postmodernism” began in late 20th century. The word “post” can be used for an activity that has ended, if modernism is not ended then can we define a “postmodernism”?

Renaissance, Modernism and Postmodernism aren’t they different places of a same stream. If they are, then what’s the name of the stream?

Renaissance, it gave a “Rebirth” to Europe, but did it give a rebirth to other societies or did it bury the other cultures and knowledge in the land of history.

The exploration of new continents, is stated as the important part of the renaissance. It may be exploration of Europe but can we define it as an exploration of mankind since humans already lived in those lands. If one set of people invade territory of others, then can we name it as “exploration”?

If “Renaissance” is a rebirth to Europe and disappearance for other cultures, then “Modernism” and “Postmodernism”, aren’t they just another two milestones of same journey.

On the other hand, the theme of the renaissance was “Man is the measure of all things”, but shadow of the man hid the social relations and interactions. One might say that, now we have well developed world comparing to what we had before 14th century, but what are the measurements we are using to decide “Well developed”.

The “Modernism” has brainwashed us to decide “development” by looking only at materialistic change of the lifestyle, but did we able to improve the internal happiness, brotherhood among mankind, love and kindness towards fauna and flora within the past 6-7 centuries.

If someone still see the change as “development” then it is worth to think whether it is positive or negative. Even though almost whole world seeing as we are on a forward move, actually aren’t we on a backward move.

“Renaissance”, if it is the foundation that covered human relationships, social values, calm and peacefulness in life style, then “Modernism” may be the ground floor that constructed on that foundation and “Postmodernism” is the name of the next floor on the ground floor of the same building.

Aren’t we all just prisoners bounded to the walls of the above building?

prisoners

Survey

  1. What is it? (Short description of how it works)

The “Survey” is a method of gathering information from a sample of randomly selected and voluntarily participating individuals to learn about the whole group. The information is collected by asking same questions from each individual in person, by mail or over the telephone. Statistical tables or charts are used to present the data and project to the whole group.

  1. What kinds of questions/problems might it be useful for?

The following types of questions are useful to make a successful survey.

  • Avoid assumptions and biased questions like “The most popular sport in the world is Soccer. What’s your favorite sport?”
  • The open ended questions like “Why do you feel this way?”, will allow people to put their real thoughts.
  • The questions should be brief and clear. It is important to eliminate unnecessary wording in questions, without losing its intent.
  • The questions must be fulfilling the end goal. Each question should have a well-defined purpose.
  • Ask one question at a time

People need enough time period to think about questions.

  1. How could it be used in IT research (try to think of an example)?

Surveys can be used to get opinions and views of users and non-users to upgrade software products and web sites.

For an example, a survey can be done to introduce new features and improve the user friendliness of a current web site. The running the survey with mix of on and offline will help to reach wide range of people.

Promoting the survey will help to give outstanding results.

Some of the key questions can be listed as,

  • What is the purpose of your visit to our web site?
  • How often do you use our web site?
  • Which parts of our website are most useful to you

To assess the views, it is essential to run the survey before and after the modifications.

In addition, running of the same survey after some time will give the opportunity to compare the results and make further modifications.

  1. What are the strengths of the approach?
    • Convenient data gathering via online, mobile devices, mail, email or telephone

    • Data can be collected from large number of respondents without geographical dependence

    • Only need to pay for the production of the questionnaires, while other data gathering methods such as personal interviews require researchers to pay more.

  2. What are the weaknesses of the approach?
    • Participants may feel uncomfortable or not feel encouraged to provide accurate and honest answers. In another words, there is no method to tell how truthful a respondent is being, and there is no method of telling how much thought a respondent has put in.

    • The close-ended questions may have a lower validity rate than open-ended.

 

References:

http://writing.colostate.edu/guides/guide.cfm?guideid=68

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survey_research

https://www.whatisasurvey.info

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survey_methodology

Mysterious Mind

When we were listening a lecture, we all have experienced that we haven’t follow some part of the lecture even though we haven’t slept or haven’t done anything else during the lecture. If our ears were there, then why couldn’t we follow the lecture. We lost our concentration on the lecture that means we were thinking something else while lecture in progress.

That means except ears and sound(voice), thinking has a role to complete the process of hearing. Is it valid with seeing by eyes, smelling by nose, tasting by tongue and feeling by body? Where does this thinking come from? Is it coming from “Mind”? If it is mind, then where does this “mind” locate? Is it in the brain or in the heart or in any other body part or outside of the body? Or Is “Mind” just another fantasy.

When we eat some sugar, we feel the sweetness. Can anyone stop the arising of the feeling of sweetness when sugar touching the tongue? It is clear that feelings are arising when eye, ear, tongue, nose and body touches the external objects. Similarly, thoughts are aroused by another thought or feeling. That may be the reason for thinking starts in one topic and ends in another topic. That means thoughts are arising in a sequence.

Further, after dissolving of sugar on tongue results dissolving of the feeling, sweetness. Whether we like or not we cannot extend the feeling, sweetness unless we put another sugar on the tongue. Anyway the feeling sweetness will generate another thought before its dissolving.

Mind, does it stands for the process of rising and dying of thoughts?